Who are the scientists of today? Where do they work? What motivates them?
Recently academia and industry as scientific work environments have converged in all sorts of ways. At the same time, these ties and convergences have elicited diverse reactions from within the scientific community: Just as there are scientists wholly comfortable doing their work in industry, there are others who take the responsibility of defending scientific integrity and who seek to foreground commercial bias or government interference as public issues.
It was not always this way. In the 19th and 20th centuries, science was typically more of an avocation than a job. In the 17th century, the great chemist Robert Boyle not only financed his science but also believed that doing science as a "trade" was demeaning.
The transformation of science from a calling to a job happened mainly in the past century and with the advent of the Bomb, almost all scientists began to appear as sources of power. Also
the dissolution of boundaries between academia and industry has given enormous strength to modern American science: resources to do what scientists want to do, time to do it, and the reputation that comes from aligning science with the concrete goods.